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EU

ראש ממשלת יוון אומר שהזמן של סולידריות אירופית להתבטא בפועל

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ראש ממשלת יוון, קיריאקוס מיצוטאקיס, אמר ביום שלישי (15 בספטמבר) כי אירופה צריכה להראות סולידריות מעשית עם יוון בנושא ההגירה, כותבים רנה מלטזו ואנגליקי קוטאנטו.

"הגיע הזמן שתמיכת אירופה תעבור ממילים למעשים, שתתבטא בסולידריות מוחשית", אמר מיצוטאקיס לאחר פגישה עם נשיא מועצת האיחוד האירופי, צ'רלס מישל.

מחנה מוריה באי לסבוס שנחרב משריפה בשבוע שעבר "שייך לעבר", אמר מיצוטאקיס והוסיף כי ייבנה מתקן חדש שיחליף אותו, עם תמיכה ומעורבות רבה יותר מצד האיחוד האירופי.

ראש הממשלה השמרני אמר גם כי נושא ההגירה זקוק למענה אירופי ולמדיניות מקלט חדשה.

לקראת פסגת האיחוד האירופי החודש שתדון במתיחות במזרח הים התיכון, אמר מיצוטאקיס כי אתונה מוכנה להיכנס לשיחות חקירה עם אנקרה "באופן מיידי" בנוגע לאזורים ימיים אם טורקיה תסיים את הפרובוקציות באזור.

EU

Revival of Libyan oil industry: Opportunity for peace making or further disruption

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While all eyes of international society are bent on 75th session of the UN General Assembly, there are other events of quite a comparable importance happening in Libya. Libya's National Oil Corporation announced a partial resumption of oil production and export. The decision of the oil workers came at the background of the agreements between the Commander-in-Chief of the Libyan National Army (LNA) Khalifa Haftar and the Deputy Prime Minister of the Government of National Accord (GNA) of Libya, Ahmed Maiteeq.

“With God's blessing, work has begun on the Sirte Oil and Gas Production fields”, Libyan National Oil Corporation (NOC) announced Sunday evening. The NOC representatives also informed that it would resume oil production operations at three fields located between Sirte and Benghazi - Zalten, Ar-Rakuba and El-Lehib. Export through the port of Marsa-el-Brega is also resuming. On Thursday, September 24th, according to media reports, the Arabian Gulf Oil Co. is expected to resume operations, which exports products from the Marsa-al-Hariga terminal in the port of Tobruk in eastern Libya which is controlled by the LNA. The first tanker is to arrive there on the same day.

The NOC`s announcement came shortly after the LNA commander, Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar`s decision to resume oil production and export, which he has blocked since January, but only under conditions of “guaranteeing a fair distribution of income and not using them for financing terrorism”.

The cancellation of the force majeure regime put pressure on oil quotes - November futures for Brent fell by 4.2%, to $41.3 per barrel. Before the restrictive measures, Libya produced 1.1 million barrels per day, and after the introduction of the force majeure regime - only about 0.1 million. Thus, theoretically, about 1 million barrels of oil per day could return to the market, which is comparable to 1.1 % of world demand.

This is a very significant volume and could disrupt the efforts of OPEC + countries to stabilize the market, given that demand is expected to decline significantly in the fourth quarter due to new restrictions related to the coronavirus. Libya, although an OPEC member, is exempt from production cut obligations, as well as Venezuela.

Nevertheless, the decision to resume oil production is decisive in an attempt to stabilize the country's budget of Libya, which is mainly replenished by oil. Nine months of blocking export and production have affected the financial position of the country.

The bulk of the Libya`s oil facilities and ports have not been operational since January this year. It should be emphasized that it is the eastern part that has the main reserves of energy resources and the corresponding infrastructure. At the same time, the region had no influence on the distribution of oil revenues. Therefore, the decision taken by the Libyans was supported primarily by the representatives of the Libyan National Army, who control this territory.

The reasons for Khalifa Haftar's decision were clarified literally half an hour after his speech by the LNA spokesman Ahmed al-Mismari. According to him, the resumption of oil fields for a month is the result of an inter-Libyan dialogue with the vice-premier of the Tripoli-based GNA Ahmed Maiteeq. The parties have developed an agreement on the fair distribution of oil revenues and the formation of a technical committee: its members will oversee the implementation of this decision and deal with disputes.

Thus, the agreement between Haftar and Maiteeq opens an opportunity to restore full export of Libyan oil. It will give the country the money it needs, which is important against the backdrop of mass protests that have shaken parts of the country in recent weeks. The protests occurred on the territories controlled by the government in Tripoli as well as the government in Tobruk. The NOC is obliged to distribute oil revenues throughout Libya.

In addition, the Haftar-Maiteeq agreement could be a factor in building confidence between parties to the conflict in Libya. Thus, it will serve the cause of peace and restoration of normal life throughout the country.

However, news about the dialogue between Khalifa Haftar and Ahmed Maiteeq had sparked a scandal in Tripoli. On Sunday night, the Supreme Council of State, created as an advisory body to the GNA, rejected the agreement between the two politicians, calling it “violating current laws.” Some deputies of Libyan parliament sitting in Tripoli had spoken in a similar way.

Experts believe that this reaction may be due to fear of the rise of Ahmed Maiteeq. By concluding an agreement with Haftar, he applied for political leadership. Given that a few days earlier the head of the GNA, Fayez Sarraj, had announced his decision to resign, there was a tense political struggle in Tripoli to take his place. Meanwhile, the head of the Supreme Council of State Khaled al-Mishri is considered one of the main contenders.

However, Khaled al-Mishri and many other members of the GNA have been compromised by ties to the radical organization Muslim Brotherhood. Ahmed Maiteeq as a more moderate politician is a more acceptable figure in the eyes of the international community. By concluding an agreement with Haftar, he has demonstrated his effectiveness.

It is worth to mention that about a month ago, the head of the GNA Fayez Sarraj and the House of Representatives` speaker based in the east of Libya, Aguila Saleh, named the transfer of proceeds from the sale of raw materials to the NOC account in the Libyan foreign bank among the ceasefire conditions.

This money was not to be cashed until a comprehensive political agreement was reached, in line with the results of the Berlin Conference in January. Almost simultaneously with this, political dialogue was resumed between the parties to the conflict. The negotiations took place in Morocco and Montreux, Switzerland. However, Khalifa Haftar, on whom the implementation of the ceasefire agreements and the unblocking of oil exports largely depended, did not show his attitude towards the statements of Fayez Sarraj and Aguila Saleh until September 18.

On Friday, September 18, making his own decision, the Field Marshal said that all the initiatives which were discussed before in order to resolve the Libyan crisis “ended in failure.”
Jalal Harshaoui, a researcher on Libyan issues at the Dutch Klingendaal Institute of International Relations, explained why the NOC hastened to resume oil production, despite the critics of the Haftar-Maiteeq agreement.

“First of all, the NOC has not been subordinate to any Libyan government for many years. This company is used to acting almost independently, when it is not physically impeded by armed groups. Secondly, under the current CEO Mustafa Sanallah, the NOC`s policy has always been to produce and export as much as possible, regardless of political or financial differences between the Libyan conflict parties”, the expert emphasized.

One should also not write off the interest of some European states in the resumption of the functioning oil industry in Libya. In December 2019, Libyan authorities approved the acquisition of a 16.33% stake in Marathon Oil by the French company Total under the Waha Oil concession. It is assumed that Total will invest $ 650 million in this project, increasing production by 180 thousand barrels per day. The Italian ENI is also interested in the resumption of oil production

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EU

A fresh start on migration: Building confidence and striking a new balance between responsibility and solidarity

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Today (23 September), the European Commission is proposing a new Pact on Migration and Asylum, covering all of the different elements needed for a comprehensive European approach to migration. It sets out improved and faster procedures throughout the asylum and migration system. And it sets in balance the principles of fair sharing of responsibility and solidarity.

This is crucial for rebuilding trust between member states and confidence in the capacity of the European Union to manage migration. Migration is a complex issue, with many facets that need to be weighed together. The safety of people who seek international protection or a better life, the concerns of countries at the EU's external borders, which worry that migratory pressures will exceed their capacities and which need solidarity from others.

Or the concerns of other EU member states, which are concerned that, if procedures are not respected at the external borders, their own national systems for asylum, integration or return will not be able to cope in the event of large flows. The current system no longer works. And for the past five years, the EU has not been able to fix it. The EU must overcome the current stalemate and rise up to the task. With the new Pact on Migration and Asylum, the Commission proposes common European solutions to a European challenge.

The EU must move away from ad-hoc solutions and put in place a predictable and reliable migration management system. Following extensive consultations and an honest and holistic assessment of the situation, the Commission proposes to improve the overall system. This includes looking at ways of improving cooperation with the countries of origin and transit, ensuring effective procedures, successful integration of refugees and return of those with no right to stay.

No single solution on migration can satisfy all sides, on all aspects – but by working together, the EU can find a common solution. European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said: “We are proposing today a European solution, to rebuild trust between Member States and to restore citizens' confidence in our capacity to manage migration as a Union. The EU has already proven in other areas that it can take extraordinary steps to reconcile diverging perspectives. We have created a complex internal market, a common currency and an unprecedented recovery plan to rebuild our economies.

It is now time to rise to the challenge to manage migration jointly, with the right balance between solidarity and responsibility.” Promoting our European Way of Life Vice President Margaritis Schinas said: “Moria is a stark reminder that the clock has run out on how long we can live in a house half-built. The time has come to rally around a common, European migration policy. The Pact provides the missing pieces of the puzzle for a comprehensive approach to migration. No one Member State experiences migration in the same way and the different and unique challenges faced by all deserve to be recognised, acknowledged and addressed.”

Home Affairs Commissioner Ylva Johansson said: “Migration has always been and always will be part of our societies. What we are proposing today will build a long-term migration policy that can translate European values into practical management.  This set of proposals will mean clear, fair and faster border procedures, so that people do not have to wait in limbo. It means enhanced co-operation with third countries for fast returns, more legal pathways and strong actions to fight human smugglers. Fundamentally it protects the right to seek asylum”.

Stronger trust fostered by better and more effective procedures The first pillar of the Commission's approach to building confidence consists of more efficient and faster procedures. In particular, the Commission is proposing to introduce an integrated border procedure, which for the first time includes a pre-entry screening covering identification of all people crossing the EU's external borders without permission or having been disembarked after a search and rescue operation.

This will also entail a health and a security check, fingerprinting and registration in the Eurodac database. After the screening, individuals can be channeled to the right procedure, be it at the border for certain categories of applicants or in a normal asylum procedure. As part of this border procedure, swift decisions asylum or return will be made, providing quick certainty for people whose cases can be examined rapidly. At the same time, all other procedures will be improved and subject to stronger monitoring and operational support from EU agencies.

The EU's digital infrastructure for migration management will be modernized to mirror and support these procedures. Fair sharing of responsibility and solidarity The second pillar at the core of the Pact is fair sharing of responsibility and solidarity. Member states will be bound to act responsibly and in solidarity with one another.

Each member state, without any exception, must contribute in solidarity in times of stress, to help stabilize the overall system, support member states under pressure and ensure that the Union fulfils its humanitarian obligations. In respect of the different situations of member states and of fluctuating migratory pressures, the Commission proposes a system of flexible contributions from the member states.

These can range from relocation of asylum seekers from the country of first entry to taking over responsibility for returning individuals with no right to stay or various forms of operational support.

While the new system is based on cooperation and flexible forms of support starting off on a voluntary basis, more stringent contributions will be required at times of pressure on individual member states, based on a safety net. The solidarity mechanism will cover various situations – including disembarkation of persons following search and rescue operations, pressure, crisis situations or other specific circumstances.

A change of paradigm in cooperation with non-EU countries The EU will seek to promote tailor-made and mutually beneficial partnerships with third countries. These will help address shared challenges such as migrant smuggling, will help develop legal pathways and will tackle the effective implementation of readmission agreements and arrangements.

The EU and its member states will act in unity using a wide range of tools to support cooperation with third countries on readmission. A comprehensive approach Today's package will also seek to boost a common EU system for returns, to make EU migration rules more credible. This will include a more effective legal framework, a stronger role of the European Border and Coast Guard, and a newly appointed EU Return Coordinator with a network of national representatives to ensure consistency across the EU.

It will also propose a common governance for migration with better strategic planning to ensure that EU and national policies are aligned, and enhanced monitoring of migration management on the ground to enhance mutual trust. The management of external borders will be improved. The European Border and Coast Guard standing corps, scheduled for deployment from 1 January 2021, will provide increased support wherever needed. A credible legal migration and integration policy will benefit European societies and economies.

The Commission will launch Talent Partnerships with key non-EU countries that will match labour and skills needs in the EU. The Pact will strengthen resettlement and promote other complementary pathways, seeking to develop a European model of community or private sponsorship. The Commission will also adopt a new comprehensive Action Plan on integration and inclusion for 2021-2024.

השלבים הבא

It is now for the European Parliament and Council to examine and adopt the full set of legislation necessary to make a truly common EU asylum and migration policy a reality. Given the urgency of local situations in several member states, the co-legislators are invited to reach a political agreement on the core principles of the Asylum and Migration Management Regulation and to adopt the Regulation on the EU Asylum Agency as well as the Regulation on Eurodac by the end of the year.

The revised Reception Conditions Directive, Qualification Regulation and recast Return Directive should also be adopted quickly, building on the progress already made since 2016. Background Today's proposals deliver on President von der Leyen's commitment in her Political Guidelines to present a new Pact on Migration and Asylum. The Pact is based on in-depth consultations with the European Parliament, all member states, civil society, social partners and business, and crafts a careful balance integrating their perspectives.

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EU

הנציבות משיקה יוזמה לייצור קקאו בר קיימא יותר

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ב- 22 בספטמבר החלה הנציבות האירופית ביוזמה לשיפור הקיימות בתחום הקקאו. דיאלוג חדש עם ריבוי בעלי עניין יפגיש בין נציגי חוף השנהב וגאנה - שתי המדינות העיקריות המייצרות קקאו המהוות 70% מייצור הקקאו העולמי - כמו גם נציגי הפרלמנט האירופי, המדינות החברות באיחוד האירופי, מגדלי הקקאו והאזרחים. חֶברָה.

מטרתה לספק המלצות קונקרטיות לקידום קיימות ברחבי שרשרת אספקת הקקאו באמצעות פעולה ושותפויות קולקטיביות. סגן נשיא בכיר וממלא מקום נציב הסחר ולדיס דומברובסקיס (בתמונה) אמר: "תחום הקקאו חשוב לאיחוד האירופי ולשותפי המסחר שלנו. השקת הדיאלוג הרב-אינטרסנטי לקקאו בר-קיימא היום תסייע להנחות את התאוששות המגזר מקוביד -19, תוך מציאת פתרונות לאתגרי הקיימות הקיימים. אנו מתכננים לפתח המלצות קונקרטיות על קקאו בר קיימא מכיוון שסחר לא רק נוגע לצמיחה ורווחים, אלא גם להשפעה החברתית והסביבתית של המדיניות שלנו. "

"כשאנחנו מדברים על קקאו, קיימות היא המפתח", אמרה נציבת השותפויות הבינלאומית, ג'וטה אורפיליינן. "הרמת שלושת עמודי התווך של פיתוח בר-קיימא במכה אחת - חברתית, כלכלית וסביבתית - אפשרית. אנו מוכנים לפעול כמתווך ישר בכדי ליצור בסיס למסגרת בינלאומית חדשה לקקאו בר קיימא. "

הדיאלוג החדש יתמוך בסיוע טכני למדינות המייצרות קקאו. למידע נוסף, ראה מידע מלא בידיעה שהונפקה לתקשורת, אתר אינטרנט ייעודי ודיאלוג רב-אינטרסים נייר קונספט.

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